Histologic Basis of Ocular Disease in Animals


Authors: Bruce Grahn, Robert Peiffer, Brian Wilcock
Release date: 2018
ISBN: 978-11-18388-77-8
Pages: 496
Binding: Hard cover
Format: 22,352 x 27,94

Histologic Basis of Ocular Disease in Animals is a comprehensive reference covering pathology of the eye in a spectrum of animal species, including domestic animals, fish, birds, and laboratory animals. Offers a comprehensive resource on diseases and conditions of the eye and orbit in a wide range of species. Covers domestic animals, fish, birds, and laboratory animals. Presents more than 1200 high-quality images carefully selected to illustrate the ocular conditions covered. Emphasizes unique pathological responses where necessary.

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Bruce Grahn

Bruce Grahn, DVM, Diplomate ACVO, ABVP, is Professor Emeritus of Veterinary Ophthalmology at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Prairie Ocular Pathology Service, University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Robert Peiffer

Robert Peiffer, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVO, is Professor Emeritus of Ophthalmology and Pathology, School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Brian Wilcock

Brian Wilcock, DVM, PhD, Honorary Diplomate ACVO, is Professor Emeritus of Pathology, Ontario Veterinary College at the University of Guelph and Owner of Histovet Surgical Pathology in Guelph, Ontario, Canada.



1 Fixation and processing of ocular tissues


	Fixation and sectioning artifacts

	Fixation techniques

	Electron microscopy


2 General pathology of the eye

	Adaptations characterized by changes in cell size, number, or appearance



	Distinguishing benign from malignant


	Unsuccessful adaptation: cellular degeneration, necrosis, and apoptosis

	Calcification, pigmentation, and cystic change

	Ocular inflammation

	Ocular manifestations of acute inflammation

	Chronic inflammation

	Ocular manifestations of chronic inflammation

	Immune privilege

	Lymphocytic–plasmacytic endophthalmitis

	The sequelae of intraocular inflammation and other injuries

	Limited regenerative ability

	Susceptibility to scarring

	Further reading

3 Congenital anomalies


	Defective organogenesis

	Defective early organogenesis

	Anophthalmos and cystic globe

	Anophthalmos and microphthalmos

	Cyclopia and synophthalmos

	Congenital anomalies of lens

	Congenital retinal nonattachment

	Aniridia – iridal hypoplasia or aplasia


	Defective later organogenesis

	Neurectodermal defects

	Multifocal retinopathies

	Multiple ocular anomalies (MOA) in Rocky Mountain horses

	Anomalies of surface ectodermal origin that develop during later organogenesis

	Congenital adnexal cysts


	Defects of neural crest migration and mesenchymal differentiation that develop in later organogenesis

	Congenital corneal disease

	Congenital disorders of neurocrest and mesenchymal tissues that manifest in the uvea during later organogenesis

	Persistent pupillary membranes (PPMs)

	Congenital glaucoma

	Uveal hypoplasia

	Collie eye anomaly (CEA) and related defects

	Persistence of embryonic vasculature


4 Histopathology of ocular trauma

	Perforating and penetrating wounds of the globe and ocular tissues

	Perforating wounds of the globe

	Traumatic intraocular hemorrhage

	Expulsive subchoroidal hemorrhage

	Sequelae of intraocular hemorrhage

	Posttraumatic inflammation

	Phacoclastic endophthalmitis and traumatic cataract

	Infectious endophthalmitis

	Trauma to individual ocular tissues

	Orbit and optic nerve




	Vitreous and retina 

	Globe as a whole 

	Reaction to foreign materials 

	Complications of ocular surgery 

	Chemical and thermal burns 

	Effects of radiant energy 


5 Diseases of the eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal, and nasolacrimal systems 


	Structural disorders 



	Subconjunctival fat prolapse 

	Entropion, ectropion, and medial canthal pocket syndrome 

	Distichiasis, districhiasis, and ectopic cilia 

	Inflammatory disease 

	Pyogranulomatous (granulomatous) blepharitis 

	Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis (juvenile cellulitis) 


	Medial canthal erosion syndrome 

	Proliferative pox virus blepharitis in birds 

	Parasitic eyelid disorders 


	Cnemidocoptes pilae (scaly beak) infestation of avian species 

	Eyelid tumors and neoplasms 

	Cystic apocrine hyperplasia (hidrocystomas, sudoriferous cysts, and apocrine cysts) 

	Granular cell tumor 

	Meibomian (tarsal gland) adenoma 

	Melanocytoma and melanoma 


	Mast cell tumor 

	Peripheral nerve sheath tumors 

	Equine sarcoid 

	Squamous cell carcinoma 

	Diseases of the conjunctiva 

	General pathology of the conjunctiva 

	Congenital conjunctival abnormalities 

	Infectious conjunctivitis 


	Chlamydophila (chlamydia) 

	Rickettsia rickettsi 

	Moraxella bovis 

	Parasitic conjunctivitis 

	Noninfectious inflammatory disease 


	Lipogranulomatous conjunctivitis of cats 

	Eosinophilic conjunctivitis 

	Miscellaneous conjunctival disorders 

	Conjunctival overgrowth in rabbits (pseudopterygium) 

	Membranous (ligneous) conjunctivitis 

	Conjunctival neoplasms 

	Conjunctival lymphoma 

	Conjunctival mast cell tumors 

	Conjunctival melanoma and melanocytoma 

	Viral papillomas 

	Conjunctiva squamous papilloma 

	Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma 

	Conjunctival vascular neoplasia 

	Miscellaneous neoplasms of the third eyelid 

	Lacrimal and nasolacrimal disorders 

	Neoplasms of the gland of the third eyelid 

	Prolapsed gland of the third eyelid 

	Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) 

	Dacryops and canaliculops 


6 Diseases of the cornea 

	Corneal wound healing 

	Epithelial wound healing 

	Stromal wound healing 

	Endothelial wound healing 

	Epithelial and fibrous ingrowth 

	Healing of corneal grafts 

	Nonspecific corneal responses to insult 

	Corneal vascularization 

	Corneal pigmentation 

	Corneal edema 


	Epithelial alterations of keratitis 

	Stromal alterations of keratitis 


	Specific inflammatory corneal disease 

	Immune‐mediated nonulcerative keratitis 

	Immune‐mediated ulcerative keratitis 

	Superficial punctate keratitis (punctate erosive corneal dystrophy) 

	Chronic superficial keratitis (pannus) 

	Eosinophilic keratitis 

	Miscellaneous corneal disorders: corneal sequestrum, indolent corneal ulceration, corneal dystrophy, corneal lipid infiltrates, and corneal degeneration 

	Corneal sequestrum 

	Indolent ulceration (boxer ulcer, spontaneous corneal epithelial defects) 

	Corneal dystrophies, corneal lipid infiltrates, and corneal calcific/lipid degeneration 

	Miscellaneous corneal disease 

	Corneal neoplasia 


7 Diseases of the episclera and sclera 

	Primary episcleral and scleral inflammatory disorders: a brief introduction 

	Secondary scleritis 

	Scleral neoplasia 

	Limbal melanocytoma 

	Episcleritis (episclerokeratitis, episclerokeratoconjunctivitis) 

	Scleritis and necrotizing scleritis a continuum or separate conditions? 

	Non‐necrotizing scleritis 

	Necrotizing scleritis 

	Parasitic episcleral disease (onchocerca vulpis/lienalis) 


8 Histologic manifestations of disorders of the uvea 

	Normal aging changes 

	Degenerative diseases of the uvea 

	Uveal atrophy 

	Uveal cysts 

	Cystoid degeneration of the pars plana ciliary epithelium 

	Pre‐iridal fibrovascular membranes (PIFMs) 

	Heterotopic bony metaplasia of the ciliary body in guinea pigs 


	The nomenclature of uveitis 

	The intraocular events of uveitis 

	The etiologic implications of inflammatory exudates 

	Immune privilege 

	Consequences of uveitis 

	Histologic basis of the common infectious, idiopathic, and immune‐mediated uveitis syndromes in domestic animals 

	Lens‐induced uveitis 

	Phacolytic uveitis 

	Phacoclastic uveitis 

	Equine recurrent uveitis 

	Feline lymphocytic–plasmacytic uveitis 

	Pigmentary uveitis/pigmentary glaucoma of dogs 

	Equine heterochromic iridocyclitis with secondary keratitis 

	Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada‐like or uveodermatologic syndrome in dogs 

	Uveal xanthogranuloma in miniature schnauzers 

	Uveitis associated with specific infectious agents 


	Feline infectious peritonitis 

	Canine adenovirus‐associated uveitis 

	Canine distemper virus‐associated uveitis 

	Bovine malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)‐associated uveitis 

	Bovine viral diarrhea mucosal disease‐associated uveitis 

	Ovine bluetongue 

	Equine viral arteritis (EVA)‐associated uveitis 

	West Nile‐associated avian uveitis 

	Hog cholera 



	Other infectious causes for endophthalmitis 

	Algal endophthalmitis 

	Protozoan endophthalmitis 

	Metazoan parasitic uveitis 


9 Histologic basis of glaucoma 


	The gross, subgross, and histologic lesions of elevated IOP 

	Retinal changes 

	Optic nerve changes 

	Classification of canine glaucoma and introduction to open and closed angles 

	Congenital glaucoma 

	Primary glaucoma 

	Open angle glaucoma of beagle dogs 

	Primary (congenital) glaucoma in New Zealand white rabbit 

	Secondary glaucoma 

	Pre‐iridal Fibrovascular Membrane 

	Posterior Synechia with Pupillary Block 

	Vitreous degeneration, syneresis, and anterior chamber prolapse 

	Trabecular obstruction by tumor 

	Other causes of secondary glaucoma in dogs 

	Glaucoma in cats 

	Glaucoma in horses 


10 Histologic manifestations of acquired and inherited diseases of the lens 

	Embryology and anatomy of the lens 

	Physiology of the lens 

	Pathology of the lens 

	Aging changes 


	The classification of cataracts 

	The histopathology of cataract 

	The pathogenesis of cataracts 

	Etiologies of cataract 

	Lens luxation 

	Inherited lens zonular dysplasia 


11 Acquired diseases of the vitreous 

	Primary disorders of the vitreous 

	Vitreous degeneration 

	Asteroid hyalosis 

	Posterior vitreous detachment 

	Synchisis scintillans 

	Uveal and neuroectodermal pigment and cysts within the vitreous and incidental parasitic encounters 


	Conditions with secondary vitreous involvement 


	Vitreous hemorrhage 


12 Histologic manifestations of retinal disease 


	Retinal diseases by histologic pattern 

	Retinal atrophy 

	Inner retinal atrophies 

	The pathogenesis of retinal degeneration secondary to glaucoma 

	Retinal atrophy secondary to non‐glaucomatous optic nerve injury and vascular disease 

	Optic nerve hypoplasia/aplasia 

	Outer retinal (photoreceptor) atrophies 

	Inherited photoreceptor dysplasias and degenerations 

	Retinal detachment 

	Toxic and nutritional retinopathies 

	Fluoroquinolone‐induced retinal degeneration 

	Vitamin A deficiency 

	Vitamin E deficiency 

	Taurine deficiency 

	Light‐induced retinal degeneration 

	Sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD) and immune mediated retinopathy (IMR) of dogs 

	Diseases targeting the retinal pigment epithelium 

	Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (central progressive retinal atrophy) 

	Hereditary retinal pigment epithelial disorders (congenital stationary night blindness of briard dogs, multifocal retinopathies) 

	Canine multifocal retinopathy 

	Retinal pigment epithelial dysplasia in the royal college of surgeons rat 

	Localized chorioretinal atrophy in rats 


	Bystander retinitis 

	Retinitis as a manifestation of neurologic disease 

	Histophilus somni (formerly Hemophilus somnus) infection in cattle 

	Canine distemper 

	Retinal lesions reflecting noninfectious systemic disease 

	Retinal lesions of systemic hypertension 

	Retinal lesions resulting from inborn errors in the intermediary metabolism (lysosomal storage diseases and others) 

	Retinal injury from thermal energy 

	Retinal neoplasms 




13 Acquired diseases of the optic nerve 

	Intraocular disorders with associated optic neuropathy 

	Glaucomatous optic neuropathy 

	Endophthalmitis and ascending optic neuritis 

	Canine distemper optic neuritis 

	Orbital disorders that affect the optic nerve 

	Proptotic optic neuropathy 

	Orbital cellulitis/abscess with optic nerve sepsis 

	CNS conditions that affect the optic nerve 

	Optic nerve disorders 

	Granulomatous meningoencephalitis 

	Unilateral granulomatous optic neuritis 

	Optic neuropathy in horses 

	Feline optic neuropathies 

	Other causes of optic neuritis 

	Toxic optic neuropathy 

	Vitamin A deficiency 

	Primary optic nerve neoplasms 


	Optic nerve gliomas 

	Peripapillary medulloepitheliomas 

	Lymphosarcoma and other metastatic neoplasms 


14 Acquired diseases of the orbit 


	Inflammatory disease 

	Extraocular myositis 

	Lacrimal adenitis 

	Orbital trauma/hematoma 

	Zygomatic sialocoele 

	Orbital cysts and post‐enucleation orbital mucocoeles 

	Parasitic orbital disease 

	Orbital neoplasia 

	Multilobular tumor of bone (multilobular osteochondroma) 

	Primary orbital osteoma and osteosarcoma 

	Lacrimal adenoma and adenocarcinoma 

	Harderian gland adenomas and adenocarcinomas 


	Orbital myofibroblastic sarcoma 

	Vascular anomalies 


15 Intraocular neoplasia 

	Non‐neoplastic hyperpigmented lesions 

	Benign melanocytic neoplasia 

	Uveal melanocytoma 

	Uveal melanocytosis (melanosis) 

	Malignant uveal melanomas 

	Canine and feline uveal malignant melanoma 

	Diffuse iris melanoma of cats 

	Iris and ciliary epithelial neoplasia 

	Medulloepithelioma and retinoblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumors) 

	Primary ocular sarcomas of cats and rabbits 

	Schwannomas of blue eyed dogs 

	Osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma 

	Miscellaneous primary intraocular tumors 

	Metastatic uveal neoplasia 


	Secondary intraocular neoplastic extension from primary nasal and orbital and adnexal neoplasms 



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Histologic Basis of Ocular Disease in Animals

Histologic Basis of Ocular Disease in Animals


Authors: Bruce Grahn, Robert Peiffer, Brian Wilcock
Release date: 2018
ISBN: 978-11-18388-77-8
Pages: 496
Binding: Hard cover
Format: 22,352 x 27,94

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