2. The cow
3. Birth and management of the calf
The labour and the foetus
Preparation for calving
Stages of calving
Attention and assistance during calving
When is it advisable to intervene during calving?
Assessment of the newborn calf
Management of the newborn calf
How to proceed with the newborn calf?
4. Colostrum and colostrum intake
What are the components of colostrum?
How much colostrum does a calf need to take?
When does the calf need to take the colostrum?
Are all colostrum the same?
How can the quality of colostrum be determined?
5. Alternatives to maternal colostrum: substitutes and supplements
Fresh or preserved colostrum
6. Feeding of the calf
Transition from colostrum to milk